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Friday, February 3, 2023

Heart diseases increase in winter. Know the causes, symptoms, treatment.

Health & FitnessHeart diseases increase in winter. Know the causes, symptoms, treatment.

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) It is the leading cause of death worldwide with an estimated 17.3 million people dying from CVDs in 2022, representing 30%. Global mortality As noted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres in seasonal variation and mortality due to CVDs, incidence rates are higher during winter than summer. This variation was associated with several risk factors such as temperature, physical activity, air pollution, infection and dietary habits.

Another potentially important seasonal risk factor is seasonal variation in plasma levels of fibrinogen, cholesterol, hormones and vasoactive substances including vasopressin (AVP), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and angiotensin II. Aldosterone and catecholamines that increase. Winter is suggested to play an important role in the seasonal variation of CVDs.

In an interview with HT Lifestyle, Dr Ajith Menon, Consultant, Cardiac Sciences at Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital, pointed out, “There has been an increase in heart attacks post-Covid. We see an increased number of patients. They are initially seen in the early stage of Covid and the immediate post-stage of Covid. However, at this time, we are not seeing any significant increase in these patients. We may return to the same. Gone are the stages we were in earlier.”

Talking about how you make a medical diagnosis of a heart attack, he said, “There are some symptoms of a heart attack like severe chest pain, which is usually in the middle of the chest, heaviness in the chest. The pain may radiate to the arms or the angle of the jaw, or it may also move to the upper abdomen. Some patients may complain of a primarily uncomfortable or burning pain or a throbbing sensation. So it’s sometimes difficult to understand the symptoms of a heart attack, but if someone has any anxiety or severe pain, which is unusual, I think they should seek medical attention and that’s all. The easiest thing to do is to do an ECG. An ECG will tell us if there is evidence of a heart attack or a compromise in the blood supply to the heart muscle.

Seasonal variation in sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been well documented by several epidemiological studies, with peak and minimum incidence in winter and summer, while some studies have shown a different onset of SCD. A seasonal peak has been observed which is characterized by a higher peak during the summer months. “The exact cause of this variation is not known but is believed to be a combination of external and internal factors such as cold weather, increased platelet aggregation, decreased fibrinolytic activity, and bleeding,” said Dr. Abhijit Khadtare, cardiologist at Ruby Hall Clinic. other components. Involvement in thrombogenesis may be an important risk factor for the onset of SCD in winter. This view is strengthened by findings of similar seasonal patterns for myocardial infarction, transient myocardial ischemia, and arrhythmias.”

He highlighted, “The wintertime increase in the occurrence of these related disorders appears to be due to identifiable triggers. The mechanisms that may explain the relationship between cardiovascular disease and temperature are undefined. In response, sympathetic nervous system activity and catecholamine secretion increase. This may result in an increase in heart rate and blood pressure via peripheral vascular resistance. Patients with already compromised coronary circulation may This excess demand in can induce myocardial ischemia therefore, angina pectoris or MI.A statistically significant positive association was also found between the two.air pressure and humidity and the incidence of PE.

A study in Scotland found that wind speed and temperature were significantly associated with the seasonal peak of DVT and delayed the effect by about 9–10 days, but the authors calculated that pressure Each 10-mbar decrease was associated with a 2.1% increase. Relative risk of DVT. Furthermore, experimental studies have suggested that changes in temperature may also affect vascular function through effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide bioavailability where, in rats, acute and short-term changes in ambient or basal body temperature occur. An increase in exposure has been observed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression.

In contrast, repeated cold exposure of rats (4°C per day for 1 week) led to the development of hypertension and impaired endothelial vasodilator function in isolated arterial tissues. Dr. Abhijit Khadtare suggested, “Knowledge about the role of environmental and biological factors can be used to improve prevention measures and educational strategies, especially among those at risk of diseases. People should be educated about the increased risk of heart disease in winter, and the importance of regular physical activity and warm clothing in winter. Additionally, people should have healthy dietary habits. should be encouraged to maintain a healthy diet, including a diet rich in vitamin D and a low-fat diet. There is also a need to manage hospital beds and other resources effectively in winter to avoid a bed crisis. .

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